25. Labrecque G., Guilleminot J. Effect of Bryonia on Experimental Arthritis in Rats. ( - Kuinka Bryonia vaikuttaa rottien niveltulehduskokeessa.) Berlin Journal of Research in Homoeopathy, 1991,1, 3, 169, (Congress Report Poster).
In this study, 35 male rats suffering
from arthritis were treated with placebo or 4X, 4C or 9C potencies of
homeopathic Bryonia for 15 days and assessed at various stages using
grip strength body weight as assessment criteria. At the end of the
treatment period, all of the Bryonia potencies had improved the
condition when compared to placebo, with Bryonia 4C providing the best
27. Macedo SB, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals. ( - Arnica montana 6cH´n tulehdusta parantavana tehosi: prekliininen eläintutkimus.) Homeopathy. 2004, 93, 2, 84-7. Researchers in this study evaluated
the protective effect of Arnica 6C on the acute inflammatory effects in
mice of carrageenan and the chronic inflammatory effects of Nystatin.
Arnica was given prior to the induction of both forms of inflammation
and it was found to provide a protective effect against Nystatin, but
not carrageenan induced inflammation.
28. MacLaughlin BW, et al. Effects of homeopathic preparations on human prostate cancer growth in cellular and animal models. ( - Homeopaattisten valmisteiden vaikutukset eturauhassyövän kasvuun solutasolla sekä eläintapauksissa.) Integr Cancer Ther. 2006, 5, 4, 362-72.
To confirm the effectiveness of the
homeopathic treatment of prostate cancer, the researchers in this trial
assessed the effects of the homeopathic medicines Sabal serrulata,
Conium maculatum and Thuja occidentalis against PC-3 and DU-145 human
prostate cancer cell cultures and against the growth of prostate tumors
in mice. Sabal reduced the proliferation of the PC-3 cell line by 33% in
72 hours and the DU-145 cell line by 23% in 24 hours. Compared to
controls, Sabal also had a statistically significant effect on the
tumors suffered by mice. The homeopathic medicines Conium maculatum and
Thuja occidentalis showed no beneficial effect on the proliferation of
the cell lines or tumors observed in this study.
40. Sakakura CE, et al. Influence
of Homeopathic Treatment with Comfrey on Bone Density around Titanium
Implants: A Digital Subtraction Radiography Study in Rats. ( - Homeopaattisen rohtoraunioyrttihoidon (Symphytum officinalis) vaikutus luuntiheyteen titaani-implanttien ympärillä: Digitaalinen Subtraction Radiography- tutkimus rotilla.) Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2008, 19, 6, 624-8.
This controlled trial looked at
populations of rats to discover what influence, if any, Symphytum 6C had
on improving the density of bone around recent titanium implants.
Implants were given to 2 groups of 24 rats; one group was given 10 drops
of Symphytum 6C per day and the other was given a similar amount of a
control substance. Animals were radiologically assessed for bone density
around the implants at the beginning of the study period, and again at
7, 14 and 28 days. Radiographs taken at day 7 showed an increase in bone
density over controls, although no statistically significant effect was
seen for the radiographs taken on days 14 and 28.
47. Varshney JP. Clinical management of idiopathic epilepsy in dogs with homeopathic Belladonna 200C: a case series. ( - Koirien Idiopaattisen, muista taudeista riippumattoman, epilepsian kliininen hoito homeopaattisella Belladonna 200C´llä: tapaussarjoja.) Homeopathy, 2007, 96, 1, 46-48.
In this uncontrolled study, 10 dogs
suffering from idiopathic epilepsy were given 3-4 drops of homeopathic
Belladonna 200C during the seizure phase orally at 15min intervals until
the seizure activity was reduced, and this was continued then four
times daily. Four dogs with head shaking syndrome in addition to
seizures were given an additional Cocculus 6C, 3-4 drops orally weekly
for 3 months. As a result of this therapy, the numbers of fits reduced
to 2-3 during first 2 weeks post-therapy and then became occasional in
next 2 weeks. With continuation of Belladonna therapy, no fits were
observed during 2-7 months follow-up. In two cases seizures
reappeared within 15-25 days of cessation of therapy. Belladonna therapy
was resumed and seizure control was again achieved. Owners were advised
to continue the therapy at least twice daily until no fits occurred for
at least 2 months.
49. Viriato EP, et al. Study of high dilutions of copaiba oil on inflammatory process. ( - Tutkimus Copaiba-öljyn vaikutus korkeissa laimennoksissa tulehdusprosessiin.) Int J High Dilution Res 2009, 8, 26, 9-149.
This trial was a collaborative effort
by researchers from several Brazilian universities and was designed to
test the hypothesis that Copaiba oil, homeopathically potentised to 30C
from either mother tincture or triturate, is as effective as
Indomethacin in reducing inflammation induced by carrageenan, and also
to determine if it was capable of influencing tissue granulation when
compared to conventional treatment. The 30C potency from mother tincture
and triturate both reduced inflammation by up to 73%, and Indomethacin
reduced inflammation by 55%. In addition, 6C potencies of Copaiba oil
were able to produce a 48% inhibition of granulation, compared to a 57%
reduction from the use of Dexamethasone.
51. Marzotto M, et al. Effects of Ignatia amara in mouse behavioural models. ( - Ignatia amara´n vaikutus hiirten (stressi-)käyttäytymiseen.) Homeopathy. 2012, 101, 1, 57-67.
This University of Verona study adds
to previous work done on anxiety in mice and in this case used various
potencies of homeopathically prepared Ignatia amara in potentially
stressful experimental scenarios. Groups of 8 mice were given a negative
(solvent) or positive control (diazepam) substance or Ignatia 4C, 5C,
7C, 9C and 30C and subjected to 5 repetitions of the light-dark test or
open-field test in a randomised and blinded manner. Mice were then
assessed for their levels of anxiety and capacity for locomotion.
Compared to controls a statistically significant association was seen
between the Ignatia potencies (particularly the 9C potency) and a
reduction in anxiety, without a significant impact on locomotion.
55. Bellavite P, et al. Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments. ( - Homeopaattiset annokset Gelsemium sempervirens´valmistetta parantavat hiirten sopeutumista uusiin ympäristöihin, ja ahdistuneisuuteen.) Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:362517.
In yet more interesting work on
Gelsemium, researchers from the Department of Morphological Biomedical
Sciences at the University of Verona in Italy, build on previous studies
to further confirm the role of homeopathically prepared Gelsemium on
anxiety. Once again, mice were exposed to potentially anxiety-producing
situations such as the light-dark test and open field test after being
given various homeopathically prepared 5C, 7C and 30C homeopathic
potencies of Gelsemium, or a positive (Diazepam) or negative (solvent)
control substance. When compared to the controls, the application of all
of the Gelsemium potencies were associated with an improvement in some
aspect of anxiety as produced by the test environments.
57. Klocke P, et al. A randomized
controlled trial to compare the use of homeopathy and internal Teat
Sealers for the prevention of mastitis in organically farmed dairy cows
during the dry period and 100 days post-calving. ( - Kaksoissokkokoe, jossa vertailtiin homeopatian käyttöä ja sisäistä ´Teat Sealers´-menetelmää utaretulehduksen ennaltaehkäisyyn orgaanisesti kasvatetuilla lypsylehmillä kuukautisten aikana sekä 100 päivää vasikoimisen jälkeen.) Homeopathy. 2010, 99, 2, 90-8.
Mastitis in organically farmed dairy
cows is a major issue since, by definition, organically farmed animals
cannot be given antibiotics. To deal with this, Swiss scientists from
the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture in Frick sought to come up
with a solution using a herd specific homeopathic mixture in
cows affected by mastitis. 102 cows were randomly assigned to receive
teat sealing via Orbeseal, a sterile, non-antibiotic inflammatory
infusion in the form of a viscous paste, the homeopathic mixture or no
treatment. All cows were checked for clinical mastitis and somatic cell
count for the first 100 days post-calving (milk from cows infected with
mastitis generally have higher total bacteria counts and somatic cell
counts than milk from uninfected cows). On analysis it was shown that
the herd-specific homeopathic was effective in increasing the number of
animals with normal milk secretion compared to untreated controls.
61. Rosas-Landa V, Garcia M, Rodriguez R. Evidence for Homeopathic Vaccination? ( - Näyttöä homeopaattisesta rokottamisesta?) Boletin Mexicano de Homeopatia, 1997, 30, 5-10.
This Mexican research describes the
process and outcomes of two pilot studies done to evaluate the
immunological response in rabbits to homeopathic preparations made from
an oral mycobacterial antigen. In the first study, 1C to 30C homeopathic
preparations of the antigen were given to rabbits in their drinking
water for one month and assessed against positive and negative controls.
All of the homeopathic potencies were associated with the production by
the rabbits of antimycobacterial antibody. In the second trial, a
tuberculin reaction was assessed after oral administration of the 30C
homeopathic potency, and this compared to the reaction to the
conventional inoculation. The reaction to the homeopathic potency was comparable to that caused by the conventional inoculate.
63. Oberholzer HM, Pretorius E. Investigating lung remodelling in Modul8 treated BALB/c asthmatic animals. Micron. 2009, 40, 8, 775-82.
This trial was carried out at the
faculty of Health Sciences in South Africa’s University of Pretoria and
was performed to investigate what effect, if any, a specific homeopathic
combination product (Module8) had against hydrocortisone, compared to a
control, in mice suffering from atopic asthma. Assessment was made via
the analysis of tissue structures and the numbers of eosinophils found
on bronchial lavage before and after treatment. On analysis of the
results noted at the end of the trial, the use of hydrocortisone and the
homeopathic formula were both associated with a significant reduction
in tissue structure changes and eosinophil count.
66. Sukul A, et al. Altered solution structure of alcoholic medium of potentized Nux vomica underlies its antialcoholic effect. ( - Muunneltu alkoholi-välittäjäaine-rakenneliuos potensoidusta Nux vomica´sta perustana alkoholinvastaiselle vaikutukselle. Br Homeopath J. 2000, 89, 2, 73-7.
Researchers from the Department of
Zoology at Visva-Bharati University in West Bengal, India explored the
notion that homeopathically prepared Nux vomica, in 30C, 200C and 1M
homeopathic potencies, could accelerate the recovery from alcohol
intoxication. This adds to previous work done in this area and was
carried out using a controlled crossover trial design on mice that were
exposed to ethanol and then given Nux vomica 30C, 200C, 1M or one of
three control substances. When compared to the controls, it was shown
that the use all of the Nux vomica potencies was associated with a
statistically significant reduction in ethanol intoxication.
68. Rocha MPS, et al. Behavior of rats treated with Rhus toxicodendron 200cH. (- Rottien käytösmuutokset kun niitä hoidettiin Rhus toxicodendron 200cH´lla.) Int J High Dilution Research, 2008, 7, 22, 3-6.
The object of this exercise was to
determine the effects of homeopathically prepared Rhus tox 200C and
diazepam, on hyperactivity and hypoactivity in mice in open field tests,
compared to controls. Mice were classified into hyperactive or
hypoactive groups and assigned to receive Rhus tox 200C, diazepam or a
water control, and their activities in an open field environment
observed before and after treatment. Upon analysis it was found that
Rhus tox 200C and diazepam both produced statistically significant
reductions in hyperactivity when compared to controls. None of the
interventions produced a significant effect on hypoactivity.
71. Bellavite P, et al. Homeopathic Doses of Gelsemium sempervirens Improve the Behavior of Mice in Response to Novel Environments.( - Homeopaattiset annokset Gelsemium sempervirens´iä parantavat hiirten käyttäytymistä uusissa elinoloissa.) Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011: 362517. Published online 2011 February 15.
Researchers in this study looked at the effects of 5C, 7C and 30C
homeopathic potencies of Gelsemium in comparison to the effects of
diazepam on the behavioural characteristics of mice when challenged with
potentially anxiety-producing situations such as exposure to new
environments or environments where cover was limited. Using measurements
from these parameters, it was determined that the use of homeopathic
Gelsemium was associated with an increase in exploratory behaviour and a
reduction in the fear of new environments.
73. Camerlink I, et al. Homeopathy as replacement to antibiotics in the case of Escherichia coli diarrhoea in neonatal piglets. ( - Homeopatian käyttö korvaamaan antibiootteja Escherichia coli´n aiheuttaman ripulin hoidossa.) Homeopathy, 2010, 99, 1, 57-62.
This work, performed by a team
primarily from the Wageningen University in The Netherlands, concerns
the design and outcomes of the homeopathic treatment of piglets
suffering from diarrhoea associated with E. coli. 52 sows in their last
month of gestation were given either placebo or a homeopathically
potentised preparation of E. coli twice weekly for that month. These
sows subsequently gave birth to 525 piglets; 265 from the placebo sow
group and 260 from the homeopathic E. coli group and all were monitored
for E. coli diarrhoea. On analysis of the results from the observations
made of both groups, it was found that the piglets from the placebo
group had a diarrhoeal incidence that was 6 times higher than the
piglets from the homeopathic group.
74. Magnani P, et al, Dose-effect study of Gelsemium sempervirens in high dilutions on anxiety- related responses in mice. ( - Annosvaikutustutkimus Gelsemium sempervirens´istä korkeissa laimennuksissa liittyen hiirten ahdistuneisuusreaktioihin.) Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010, 210, 4, 533-45.
Researchers from the University of
Verona in Italy carried out this trial on mice to determine whether or
not any of five homeopathically potentised preparations of Gelsemium
could influence the generation of anxiety. Mice were exposed to
Gelsemium 4C, 5C, 7C, 9C and 30C, a positive control substance
(Buspirone) or a negative control (the solvent used to produce the
Gelsemium potencies) and then challenged with potentially anxiety
generating situations, these being open-field tests and light-dark
tests. While Gelsemium had little effect on the mice in the open-field
test, it did produce a statistically significant reduction in anxiety
associated with the light-dark test that was comparable to the effect
produced by Buspirone, particularly the Gelsemium preparations
potentised to 5C, 9C and 30C.
78. Sarkar A, et al. Anti-rheumatoid and anti-oxidant activity of homeopathic Guaiacum officinale in an animal model. ( - Reumaa ja niveltulehdusta parantava sekä antioksidanttivaikutus homeopaattisella Guaiacum officinale´lla eläinkokeessa.) Homeopathy, 2014, 103, 2, 133-8.
Guaiacum has been used for generations
in homeopathy both constitutionally and specifically for
musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the
anti-rheumatic and anti-oxidant activity of homeopathic preparations of
Guaiacum officinale on rats. To do this, a group of rats suffering from
rheumatoid arthritis were divided into 6 groups and received Sham
control, Arthritis control, Standard treatment (indomethacin), Guaiacum
mother tincture, Guaiacum 30C or Guaiacum 200C.These groups were given
these interventions for 5 days and anti-rheumatic activity was examined
through physical, urinary, serum parameters. These included body weight,
ankle and knee diameter, urinary parameters (hydroxyproline),
glucosamine, calcium, creatinine, phosphate, serum acid phosphatase,
alkaline phosphatise, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lipid peroxidation,
glutathione, superoxide dismutase,, catalase, serum GGT and serum
interleukins. When compared to the controls, treatment with all of the 3
forms of Guaiacum was associated with a normalisation of these
79. Bellavite P, et al. Mice behavioural models with pooled data analysis of Gelsemium studies and new findings about Ignatia and Aconitum. Int J High Dilution Res, 2011, 10, 36, 198-200 Proceedings of the XXV GIRI Symposium and VIII CBFH; 2011, Sep 04-07; Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) 198.
In a follow-up to previous work done
in this area, researchers from the University of Verona in Italy
investigated the anxiolytic properties of homeopathically prepared
materials on mice. Using a randomized, blinded and controlled protocol,
mice were assigned to be given several one of several homeopathic
potencies of Gelsemium, Aconite, or material doses of positive
controls (diazepam or buspirone) or a negative control (ethanol and
water)Ignatia. They were exposed to stressful environmental situations (open
field test or light-dark tests) and assessed for anxiety in relation to
these environments. Compared to the controls, cumulative analysis of the
results demonstrated a highly significant effect of Gelsemium 5C and
30C in both tests and Ignatia 9C in the Light-Dark test. The results
indicate an anxiolytic rather than a sedative effect.
90. Lotfollahzadeh S, et al, The
Therapeutic Effect Of Tarentula Cubensis Extract (Theranekron) In
Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Cattle: A Randomised Trial In An Endemic
Setting. ( - Tarentula Cubensis Extract´in (Theranekron) terapeuttinen vaikutus karjan suu- ja sorkkatautiin: Kaksoissokkokoe laajalle levinneessä ympäristössä.) Homeopathy, 2012, 101, 159-164.
Iranian workers from the University of
Tehran conducted a randomised controlled clinical trial of a
homeopathic preparation of Tarentula cubensis (Theranekron) during an
outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle in Iran. A single
subcutaneous injection of Theranekron was used as sole treatment in 50
infected animals (treatment group). The control group comprised 15
infected animals treated with standard medication including: daily
injection of flunixin meglumine and oxytetracycline and daily dressing
of lesions with 4% sodium carbonate. Systemic and local signs were
recorded over 14 days. Rectal temperature in the treatment group
subsided to normal range within 1 day of homeopathic treatment, and was
significantly lower in the test group than in the control group on
several successive days (P < 0.05). Healing of inflamed mucosal areas
and appetite score of the treatment was significantly better than the
control during the first 3 days of treatment (P < 0.05) showing that
Theranekron is effective for the treatment of systemic and local signs
of FMD-infected cattle.
106. Sampath S, et al. Effect of
Homeopathic Preparations of Syzygium Jambolanum and Cephalandra Indica
on Gastrocnemius Muscle of High Fat and High Fructose Induced Type-2
Diabetic Rats. ( - Homeopaattisten valmisteiden: Syzygium Jambolanumin ja Cephalandra Indican, vaikutus rottien Gastrocnemius lihaksen korkeisiin rasva- ja fruktoositasoihin 2-tyypin diabeteksen seurauksena.) Homeopathy, 2013, 102, 160-171.
Researchers from India’s Central
Council for Research in Homeopathy and University of Madras, looked into
the effects on diabetes of homeopathic medicines prepared from Syzygium
Jambolanum and Cephalandra Indica- two medicines with a long history of
use in diabetes in humans. Homeopathic preparations of Syzygium and
Cephalandra in mother tincture, 6C and 30C, were used to examine the
molecular mechanism of antidiabetic effects in the skeletal muscle of
rats with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Positive (metformin and
streptozotocin) and negative (diluent) controls were also used After 30
days of treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and insulin
signalling molecules in the skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) were
measured. The rats given the homeopathics showed a significant decrease
in serum insulin and lipid profile as well as low levels of insulin
receptor (IR), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt),
p-Aktser473 and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein expression (p <
0.05) with a significant increase in fasting blood glucose level (p
< 0.05), compared to the controls. Treatment with homeopathic
medicines significantly increased the serum insulin and expression of
these proteins (p < 0.05) with a significant decrease in fasting
blood glucose (p < 0.05).
- Tutkimukset kasveilla - 23 kpl
1. Baumgartner S., Thurneysen A., Heusser P. Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. ( - Kasvatuskoe miniherneillä (Pisum sativum L.) kasvinkasvatusaineiden homeopaattisia laimennoksia käyttäen.) Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004, 11, 5,:281-92.
In an effort to determine the effects
of homeopathically potentised plant growth substances on the shoot
growth characteristics of dwarf peas, plant cultures were immersed for
24 hours in solutions containing 4 different plant growth substances in
12X to 30X potencies. These were compared to cultures grown in a control
substance. At shoot length measurement after a 14 day growth period,
the cultures grown in the potentised growth substances showed a
measurable effect on the seed growth characteristics when compared to
the control substance, the most notable of these, gibberellin 17X,
producing the largest growth stimulation.
2. Baumgartner S, et al. Reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation by homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. Complement Ther Med. 2008, 16, 4, 183-91.
In this Swiss study, which was slight
variation of previous work done in this area by Hamman and others, dwarf
pea seedlings in 4 batches containing seeds taken from adult plants in
1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000, were exposed to 17X and 18X potencies of
Gibberellic acid (GA) and cultivated under controlled conditions,
alongside dwarf pea seedlings that had received the same level of
exposure to 2 negative control substances. GA in material doses is often
used commercially to break periods of dormancy in seeds and has the
capacity to stimulate the growth of seedlings and it’s an endogenous
component of some seeds and is involved in the growth of seeds and alpha
amylase activity within the plant.. After 14 days all of these
seedlings had their lengths measured and at this point it was found that
the controls had performed as predicted, the 1997 seedling batch
previously exposed to GA 17X and GA 18X had exceeded the growth rate of
the controls by an average of 11.2% and the 1998 batch responded with a
mixture of either stimulation or suppression of growth. Batches from
1999 and 2000 failed to respond to either potency of GA.
3. Binder M, Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A. The effects of a 45x potency of arsenicum album on wheat seedling growth -- a reproduction trial. ( - 45-kertaisesti potensoidun Arsenicum albumin vaikutus vehnänidun kasvuun - kasvattamiskoe.) Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005, 12, 5, 284-91.
In a repeat performance of the previous trial, wheat seedlings
previously exposed to sub- lethal doses arsenic were cultivated in
either Arsenicum album 45X, water 45X or un-potentised water, and the
seedling height measured at 7 days. The experiment was independently
reproduced 8 times and after the results were collated the wheat
seedlings cultivated in Arsenicum 45X showed a significant reduction in
height when compared to the 2 controls.
6. Endler PC, Pongratz W. Homoeopathic Effect of a Plant Hormone? ( - Kasvihormonin homeopaattinen vaikutus?) Berlin J on Res in Hom, 1991, 1, 3, 148-150.
This study showed that Indole Butyric
Acid, known at material levels to enhance the growth of new roots and
leaves from plant slips, at a 33X potency, continued to provide an
enhancement of growth
7. Jones RL, Jenkins MD. Plant Responses to Homoeopathic Medicines. ( - Kasvien vasteet homeopaattisille lääkkeille.) British Homeopathic Journal, 1981, 70, 3, 120-146.
The authors of this work set out to
study the effects of various homeopathic potencies of Silver nitrate on
the growth characteristics of the leaf sheaths of wheat. On analysis of
the results they found that potencies of silver nitrate were in fact
able to either inhibit or stimulate growth, depending upon the potency
9. Bonfim FPG, et al. Germination
and vigor of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) pelleted with homeopathic
preparations Alumina and Calcarea carbonica subjected to toxic levels
of aluminium. Int J High Dilution Res 2010, 9, 33, 138-146.
Researchers from three different
universities in Brazil were involved in this study that adds to previous
work looking at the effects of homeopathically prepared materials on
plants. Lettuce seedlings intoxicated with aluminium were exposed to
homeopathically prepared Alumina 6C, Alumina 12C, Calc carb 6C, Carb
12C, or two controls. Outcomes were assessed using germination
percentage, germination speed index and radicle length. On analysis and
when compared to controls a statistically significant association was
found between all of the homeopathically prepared substances and germination speed index, radicle length and germination index.
10. Marques RM, Marques-Silva GG, Bonato CM. Effects
of high dilutions of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronela) on the
germination and growth of seedlings of Sida rhombifolia. Int J High Dilution Res
11. Gangar H.U. Management and Control of Genetic Processes in Cotton Plants through Homoeopathy. ( - Puuvillakasvin käsittely ja sen geneettisten prosessien kontrollointi homeopatialla.) Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy, 2007, 1, 1, 1-5,
In this Indian research, the
effects of homeopathically prepared solutions on a broad range of
parameters, using plants as the subjects, were measured. The homeopathic
solutions were used in CM (100,000C) potencies and made from differing
source materials. These were then assessed for their capacity to
influence growth, germination, flowering and fruiting of cotton plants,
compared to inactive dilutions applied in the same manner. In all cases,
the homeopathically prepared solutions had a clear and objective effect
on the parameter assessed. Work was also done here which confirmed that
different potencies of different homeopathic drugs have a
remedy-specific electrical charge.
12. Rossi F, et al. Application of homeopathic remedy Carbo vegetabilis and development of plants of Lettuce. ( - Homeopaattisen Carbo vegetabiliksen käyttäminen lehtisalaatin kasvattamisessa.) Int J High Dilution Research, 2006, 5, 17, 23-30.
A significant amount of work has been
done to determine the effect effects of homeopathically prepared
substances have on plants. This study sought to investigate the effect
of a number of different potencies of the homeopathic product, Carbo
vegetalis, on the development of seedlings of the lettuce, Lactuca
sativa. Lettuce seedlings housed in an environment likely to induce
stress, a shaded greenhouse and a greenhouse in full sun, were exposed
to Carbo veg 6C, 12C, 30C, 100C or one of 2 control substances. An
analysis of the results confirmed the action of Carbo veg in these
environments, with the 100C have the most notable effect on seedlings
grown in the stressed environment.
13. Sukul S, Mondal S, Sukul NC. Sepia 200
cH in 1:1,000 dilution counteracts the effect of salt stress in cowpea
seedlings but vehicle 90% ethanol proves ineffective in the same
dilution. ( - Sepia 200 cH 1:1,000-liuksena tekee tehottomaksi suolan aiheuttaman stressin pitkäpavulla, mutta 90% etanoli osoittautuu tehottomaksi samassa laimennoksessa.) Int J High Dilution Res, 2012, 11, 41, 237-246.
Work carried out at the Department of
Botany, Visva-Bharati University in West Bengal, looked at the influence
of homeopathically prepared Sepia 200C on the very common problem
experienced by those growing cowpea in soil with rising salinity levels-
salt stress. To do this, the team grew cowpea seedlings over moist
filter paper in Petri dishes and divided them into 4 groups: (1) control
in sterile water, (2) in 50 mM NaCl solution, (3) seeds pretreated with
90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50 mM NaCl
solution, and (4) seeds pretreated with Sep 200C diluted with
water 1:100 and transferred to 50 mM NaCl solution. The data were
analyzed by ANOVA followed by Student’s t-test and this showed that,
compared to controls, Sepia 200C significantly increased the growth,
sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content of the seedlings, thereby
confirming that it counteracted the effects of salt stress.
14. Trebbi G, et al. Phytopathological and nutraceutical evaluation of cauliflower plants treated with high dilutions of arsenic trioxide. ( - Kukkakaalin kasvitautiopillinen sekä ravintotieteellinen arviointi korkeapotenssisen asreenitrioksidikäsittelyn jälkeen.) Int J High Dilution Res, 2012, 11, 40, 161-162. Proceedings of the XXVI GIRI Symposium; 2012, Sep 20-22; Florence (Italy).
The fungus, Alternaria brassicicola,
is a common cause of dark leaf spot disease in cauliflower (Brassica
oleracea L.). In this study, researchers from the University of Bologna
tested the antifungal capacity of homeopathically prepared Arsenic trioxide 35X and Cuprum metallicum 5X and compared to controls. 2
experiments were performed. In the first, spore suspensions were
prepared in the test substances and their inhibiting effect on
germination was recorded microscopically after incubation at 25°C for 5
hours. In the second experiment, the same treatments were tested on
plants artificially inoculated with the fungus. To do this the test
field in which the plants were to be grown was divided into plots
according to a complete randomized block design. In the first trial,
plants were artificially inoculated and treated every week; the
infection level was evaluated on cauliflower heads. The second trial was
performed on the same field with the aim to induce a natural infection,
mediated by infected crop residues. Measurement endpoints concerned the
evaluation of some physiological parameters along with the
glucosinolate content on cauliflower heads. On analysis, the team found
that Arsenic 35X and Cuprum 5X induced a significant decrease of mean
infection level (-50%). In addition, physiological and nutraceutical
analyses of healthy heads demonstrated that Arsenicum induced a
significant increase of both head size and glucosinolate content.
15. Betti L, et al. Effectiveness
of ultra high diluted arsenic is a function of succussion number as
evidenced by wheat germination test and droplet evaporation method. ( - Erittäin paljon laimennetun arseenin tehokkuuden funktion laimennusluku on todistettu vehnän itämistestillä ja pisaran haihdutusmenetelmällä.) Int J High Dilution Res, 2013, 12, 44, 127-128. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 127.
This Italian research was performed to
determine what effect, if any, the number of successions used in the
preparation of a homeopathic medicine, has on its activity. Previous
research has shown that homeopathically prepared potencies applied to
arsenic-stressed wheat seeds stimulates their germination rate. In this
study multiple replications of this model were employed using controls
and a 45X homeopathic potency of arsenic trioxide succussed 4, 8, 16,
32, 40, 70 and 100 times. On analysis of the results it was shown that
increasing the number of the succussions increased the activity of the
16. Banerjee P, Sukul S.Cuprum
Sulphuricum - a homeopathic drug can combating toxic effect of Cu,
promote seed germination and peroxidase activity in Vigna unguiculata. ( - Cuprum sulfuricum - homeopaattinen lääke, pystyy taistelemaan kurparin myrkkyvaikutusta vastaan, edistämään siementen itämistä sekä peroksidaasin aktiivisuutta Vigna unguiculata-kasvissa.) Int J High Dilution Res, 2013, 12, 44, 129-130. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 129.
High concentration of copper can cause
toxic effects in some plants due to its redox properties and can
catalyze free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species and peroxide
compounds. This Indian study was performed to examine the effect of
homeopathically prepared copper sulphate 200C on seed germination of
Vigna unguiculata. 3 sets of 100 seeds were prepared for germination. 2
sets were soaked in copper sulphate 200C and the third in a control
substance. All were then exposed to material doses of copper sulphate.
The seedling weight and length of germinating axis were observed after
24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Water uptake percentages were recorded,
total protein, chlorophyll, soluble and insoluble sugar were measured
and the activity of peroxidase was determined. The results confirmed
that in all the parameters observed, copper sulphate 200C-treated seeds
showed significant changes as compared to controls.
17. Sukul NM, Chakraborty I, Sukul A. Potentized Cina reduces root-knot nematode in infestation of cucumber and the antinematode effect is transmitted through water. ( - Potensoitu Cina vähentää juuriäkämäsukkulamadon kurkuille aiheuttamaa tuholaisvaivaa, joka leviää veden välityksellä.) Int J High Dilution Res, 2013, 12, 44, 133-134. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 133.
Root-knot nematodes belonging to
Meloidogyne incognita are responsible for substantial loss in yield of
vegetable crops all over the world. Chemical nematicides are expensive,
cause environmental pollution and leave toxic residues in crops. In this
Indian research, homeopathically prepared Cina was investigated
for its properties as a nematicide and whether these properties could be
dispersed through water. To do this, aseptically germinated seeds of
cucumber, (Cucumis sativus L) were grown in sterlised pots. The pots
were divided into 5 groups (10 pots per group): (i) uninoculated
untreated, (ii) inoculated untreated, (iii) inoculated and treated with
Cina 200C , (iv) inoculated and treated indirectly by connection with
wet cotton threads to group (iii) and (v) inoculated and treated with
Ethanol 200C as a remedy control. Groups (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) were
inoculated with the second stage larvae of Meloidogyne incognita when
the plants were at six leave stage. Just before inoculation plants of
group (iii) and (iv) were connected leaf by leaf by wet cotton threads
encased in polythene tubes. Then plants of group (iii) were directly
pretreated by foliar spray with Cina 200C diluted with distilled water
(1:500). Two days after inoculation plants of group (iii) were treated
again with Cina 200C in a similar way. After 2 weeks all the plants were
harvested and measured for shoot length, shoot weight, root length,
root weight, numbers of leaves per plant, leaf area, root gall number
per plant, nematode population in roots and rhizospheric soil, leaf
chlorophyll content, leaf sugar, protein content and root protein
content. Analysis of the data showed a strong association between the
use of Cina 200C, a reduction in nematode population, and a significant
reduction in their effects. The data also showed that these effects were
transferred through water.
18. Fagan V, et al. High dilution of Belladonna affect the mycelial growth of Corynespora cassiicola in vitro. ( - Belladonna-liuos vaikuttaa Corynespora cassiicola´n huovaston kasvuun in vitro-kokeessa.) Int J High Dilution Res, 2011, 10, 36, 245-248. Proceedings of the XXV GIRI Symposium and VIII CBFH; 2011, Sep 04-07; Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) 245.
In this work from the State University
of Maringá in Brazil, researchers sought to trial the use of
homeopathically prepared Belladonna against the growth of spores from
the fungus Corynespora cassiicola, which is associated with Target Spot
disease, a problem that causes infection in various crops such as
soybeans and is endemic to Brazil. This is a significant issue for
organic farmers who are prohibited from using agricultural chemicals to
control it. To test the effectiveness of this protocol, agar growth
plates were produced and to these were added filtered Belladonna in 6X,
12X, 24X or 30X potencies or a filtered control (distilled water). The
fungal isolate was peaked and grown and a disc of the fungal mycelia
placed in the centre of each plate. The plates were incubated and
checked daily for fungal growth from the disc for 12 days. The results
showed that all of the potencies of Belladonna were effective in
reducing the mycelial growth of the fungus when compared to control,
with the best results achieved with the 30X potency.
19. Barbosa IS, et al. Evaluation of the effects of homeopathic medicines on the germination seeds of Brassica oleracea l. ar. Italica. ( - Homeopattisten lääkkeiden vaikutuksen arviointi Brassica oleracea I. ar. Italica´n siementen itämiseen.) Int J High Dilution Res, 2012, 11, 40, 213-214. Proceedings of the XXVI GIRI Symposium; 2012, Sep 20-22; Florence (Italy).
Scientists from the Federal Institute
of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in an effort to reduce the dependence on
agricultural chemicals, designed an experiment to determine the effects
of homeopathically prepared Phosphorus on the germination of seeds from
Brassica oleracea (Broccoli). Broccoli seeds were grown in multiple sets
and exposed to Phosphorus 6C, 30C, 200C or 2 controls, every 2 days for
10 days, and assessed for germination percentage and germination speed
index. An analysis of the results showed that when compared to the
controls, seeds under the influence of Phosphorus 6C showed a
significant increase in germination speed.
20. Datta S, et al. Potentized Sucrose alters growth, sugar, protein and chlorophyll content in cowpea seedlings. ( - Potensoitu sakkaroosi muuntaa kasvua, sokeri-, proteiini- ja klorofyllimääriä pitkäpavun taimilla.) Int J High Dilution Res, 2013, 12, 44, 137-138. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 137.
Scientists from Calcutta University
performed this work to measure the effects of homeopathically prepared
sucrose on various physiological parameters in cowpea seedlings. To do
this, cowpea seeds were sterilized and allowed to germinate in petri
dishes over moist filter papers. Immediately after germination they were
divided into two groups. While one group was treated with Sucrose 30C diluted with distilled water 1:500, the other group was treated with Ethanol 30CH,
diluted with water 1:500. After treatment the seedlings were
transferred to separate petri dishes and allowed to grow for 72 hours.
Samples of seedlings from each treatment group were weighed, kept at 70
degrees Celsius for 24 hours and weighed again. Another sample from each
group was analysed for their sugar, protein and chlorophyll content.
Leaf and cotyledon sections were examined for changes in the epidermal
cells of cotyledons and density and morphology of stomata. It was shown
that Sucrose 30C induced significant changes in water content,
chlorophyll, sugar and protein content in the seedlings as compared to
the control. Sucrose 30C also increased stomata density in the leaves
significantly and there was a marked change in the structure of
epidermal cells of cotyledons.
22. Dinelli G, et al. Different Approaches in Homeopathic Basic Research: Plant-Based Bioassays and Evaporation-Induced Crystallization. ( - Erilaisia lähestymistapoja homeopatian perustutkimukseen: Kasviperäisiä bioanalyysejä ja haihduttamiskiteytyksiä.) Homeopathy, 2016, 105, 12.
Italian researches from the University
of Bologna carried this work out to confirm the effects of
homeopathically prepared Arsenic in the form of As2O3 45X on the growth
of wheat seedlings. The results demonstrated a significant increase of
germination rate and stalk growth with respect to control. Further work
was done using this model to determine the effects of temperature, the
time taken for the germination effects to become apparent, succussion
number and potency level, as well as gene expression, on the
wheat-germination effects of As2O3. From these experiments it was shown
that As2O3 45X heated to 20 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 70 degrees C,
induced a significant increase of germination rate vs. control, losing
its effectiveness at 100 degrees C. A2O3 45x induced a stimulating
effect on germination, that reached significance only after three months
from beginning treatment. In regard to the number of succussions used
to prepare the As2O3, a significant increase of germination was obtained
starting from 32 succussions between each dilution step for As 45x.
Homeopathic potencies from 5X to 60X were prepared and the data showed
an oscillatory trend, with some potencies inducing a significant
decrease (35X), while others a significant increase of germination rate
(5X, 30X, 40X, 45X, 55X, 60X). In regard to gene expression, a massive
reduction of gene expression levels to values comparable to those of
the control group, induced by As2O3 45x, was observed for several
functional classes of genes. In an extension to this, the research team
sought to verify whether the droplet evaporation method (DEM) for
crystal formation can be applied to assess the effectiveness of
homeopathic medicines. They studied the shape characteristics of the
polycrystalline structures formed during droplet evaporation of wheat
seed leakages. The results showed that As2O3 45x increased the local
connected fractal dimension levels and bilateral symmetry exactness
values in the polycrystalline structures, as compared to the water
23. Marotti I, et al. Transcriptome Profiling Of Wheat Seedlings Following Treatment With Ultrahigh Diluted Arsenic Trioxide. ( - Vehnäntaimien transkriptio-profilointi käytettäessä niille erittäin paljon laimennettua arseenitrioksidi-käsittelyä.) Evid Based Complement Altern Med, 2014:851263. doi: 10.1155/2014/851263.
This Italian study, conducted by
workers from the University of Bologna and others, was done to test
whether 7-day-old wheat seedlings, grown from seeds either poisoned with
a sublethal dose of As2O3 (Arsenic trioxide or Arsenicum album) or
un-poisoned, showed significant differences in gene expression profiles
after the application of homeopathically prepared As2O3 compared to
water (control). The results provided evidence for a strong gene
modulating effect of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 in seedlings grown from
poisoned seeds: a massive reduction of gene expression levels to values
comparable to those of the control group was observed for several
functional classes of genes. A plausible hypothesis is that
homeopathically prepared As2O3 treatment induced a re-equilibration of
those genes that were up-regulated during the oxidative stress by
bringing the expression levels closer to the basal levels normally
occurring in the control plants.
- In-Vitro-tutkimukset - 61
2. Belon P, et al. Inhibition of Human Basophil Degranulation by Successive Histamine Dilutions. Inflammation Research, 1999, 48, Supplement 1, S17-18.
In this controversial, blinded
multi-centre trial (which confirmed earlier studies published in Nature
in 1988), homeopathic potencies of histamine were found to substantially
reduce the potential for degranulation by sensitised basophils when
exposed to allergens.
4. Casaroli- Marano RP, Alegre J, Campos B. Infrared Changes in Potentised Solutions. Revista Homeopatica, 1998, 38, 5- 12.
In this experiment, 70% alcohol/water
solutions were serially diluted 1 in 100 up to 30 times, with and
without succussion at each step. On examination of each of these
significant spectral differences were found between the solutions that
were succussed and those that were not, indicating that dilution
and succussion may produce structural changes to the molecules in the
solution. This may provide further evidence for the possibility of a
“memory” of water.
5. Chirila M, et al. The Action of
Succussed Substances on the Human Lymphocytes and PMN Granulocytes in
Vitro Stimulated with Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and Zymosin Opsonised
(ZO). Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, 1991, Congress Report, 1, 3, 166-167.
Peripheral blood lymphocytes were
taken from people with a history of allergy to bee products (Group 1),
and from people who were immunosuppressed (Group 2). These cells were
incubated in culture media supplemented with a succussed water control,
various homoeopathic potencies of bee venom (for Group 1 cells), or
cortisone (for Group 2 cells), and the cells were grown. The
proliferation of Group 1 cells was inhibited by the potencies of bee
venom, indicating that these remedies may be useful in the management of
allergies to bee products. The effects of the potencies of cortisone on
the Group 2 cells varied from stimulation to inhibition.
8. Enbergs H. Effects of the homeopathic preparation Engystol on interferon-gamma production by human T-lymphocytes. Immunol Invest. 2006, 35, 1, 19-27.
In one of the few experiments carried
out in this area to date, researchers conducting this study collected
T-lymphocytes from 30 healthy human volunteers to investigate the
ability or otherwise of a homeopathic combination product to increase
the production of interferon-gamma from these cells. After exposure to
various concentrations of this combination, when compared to control
cells, interferon-gamma producing cell levels were increased by a means
of 20.9% to over 24% with no dose-dependence of the effect at the
12. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P. Antiviral Action of Euphorbium Compositum and its Componants. Forschende Komplementarmedizin Und Klassiche Naturheikunde, 2001, 8, 207-212.
In this in-vitro study, human cell
cultures were infected with influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial
virus, human rhinovirus or herpes simplex virus type1, and then treated
with Euphorbium compositum, a homeopathic complex. Various anti-viral
drugs such as acyclovir, rabavirin and amatadine were used as positive
controls against which to compare the results of the complex. When
compared with control cells exposed to the same concentration of ethanol
used in the complex, the homeopathic complex showed anti-viral
properties comparable to the effects of the drugs against respiratory
syncitial virus and herpes simplex virus type 1.
13. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P, Weiser M. Influence of homeopathically processed Coenzyme Q10 on proliferation and redifferentiation of endothelial cells. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004, 11, 5,:267-73.
CoEnzyme Q10, known for its ability to
regulate cell metabolism and proliferation, was assessed for its
ability to promote the same functions after being homeopathically
potentised. Undifferentiated human umbilical vein endothelial cell
cultures were exposed to various potencies of CoQ10 (5X to 10X) The cell
division rate was then assessed by flow cytometry and cell
differentiation determined by von Willebrand factor expression. The 7X
to 10X potencies of CoQ10, and particularly the 8X potency, increased
cell proliferation while none of the potencies appeared to enhance cell
16. Pathak S, et al. Ruta 6
selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation
in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human
brain cancer. Int J Oncol. 2003, 23, 4, 975-82.
In this uncontrolled study, 15 people
suffering from various intracranial tumors were treated with a
combination Ruta 6C and homoeopathic calcium phosphate. All forms of
tumors, particularly gliomas, were found to regress under
treatment with these medicines and the trial subjects also exhibited an
increase in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. Further examination of a
possible mechanism for the tumor-killing effect of this combination
found that it was due to cancer cell telomere erosion, causing a
selective early death of these cells.
18. Ramachandran C, et al. Investigation of cytokine expression in human leukocyte cultures with two immune-modulatory homeopathic preparations. J Altern Complement Med. 2007, 13, 4, 403-7.
The aim of the researchers from Miami
Children's Hospital in Florida who carried out this study was to
determine the effects of homeopathics on cellular signalling pathways,
specifically, the effects of 2 anti- influenza homeopathic combination
products on normal human leukocyte cultures. When the researchers
compared the effects of the homeopathic combinations to 20% ethanol
solvent controls, it was found that exposure to either of the
homeopathic combinations stimulated the production of pro-and
anti-inflammatory cytokines by these cells.
19. Singh L.M., Gupta G. Antiviral Efficacy of Homeopathic Drugs against Animal Viruses. British Homeopathic Journal, 1985, July, 74, 168-174.
Researchers at the Indian Central Drug
Research Institute in Lucknow carried out this study to determine the
inhibiting effects, if any, of various potencies of 10 homeopathic
remedies on chicken embryo virus and simliki forest virus, a virus
capable of causing encephalitis, paralysis ad death in mice. Homeopathic
typhoidinum 200C, hydrophobinum 1M, tuberculinum 1M, nux vomica 200C
and malandrinum 1M all produced 100% inhibition of the chicken embryo
22. Walchli C, Baumgartner S, Bastide MJ. Effect of low doses and high homeopathic potencies in normal and cancerous human lymphocytes: an in vitro isopathic study. Altern Complement Med. 2006, 12, 5, 421-7.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pretreatment with either low doses,
or homeopathic potencies, of cadmium chloride on the ability of normal
lymphocyte or cancerous lymphocyte cultures to withstand exposure to
toxic doses of cadmium. Normal lymphocytes exposed to toxic levels of
cadmium which were pretreated with either low dose of cadmium or
potentised cadmium showed a significant increase in viability. This
effect was the same in the cancerous lymphocytes except that these cells
showed no increase in viability after pre-treatment with potentised
23. Witt CM, et al. The In-Vitro Evidence for an Effect of High Homeopathic Potencies--a Systematic Review of the Literature. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2007, 15, 2, 128-38.
This was essentially a meta-analysis
of all of the in-vitro studies that have attempted to demonstrate a
homeopathic effect to date, carried out by Professor Claudia Witt and
colleagues at the Department of Epidemiology and Health Economics,
Charité University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany. The aim here was
to search all appropriate databases for relevant studies, determine
which studies met the quality criteria set by the researchers, and then
to determine which, if any of these, exhibited a statistically
significant effect in this area. 67 papers were identified that met the
quality criteria and of these, 73% found that an effect from high
potencies can be demonstrated. The majority of these studies involved
the effects of potentised substances on basophils. Replication of some
of these studies has been carried out.
26. Ive EC, Couchman IM, Reddy L. Therapeutic Effect of Arsenicum album on Leukocytes. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(3):3979-87.
Scientists from South Africa’s Durban
University of Technology performed this in vitro study to determine the
effects of various succussed and unsuccussed homeopathically prepared
Arsenic trioxide (Arsenicum album) on human T lymphocytes grown in
tissue culture. Cells were intoxicated with arsenic trioxide and then
exposed to succussed and unsuccussed Arsenicum 6C, succussed and
unsuccussed Arsenicum 30C, succussed and unsuccussed Arsenicum 200C or a
control substance for 24, 48 or 72 hours. Cells were assessed for
viability at baseline and at these three data points. After the counts
from these data points were assessed it was shown that when compared to
controls, all of the homeopathically prepared Arsenicum potencies
provided a statistically significant increase in cell viability. These
results were unaffected by whether the material was succussed or
unsuccussed, but were affected by the length of exposure time to the
27. De A, et al. Potentized
homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C inhibits intracellular reactive
oxygen species generation and up-regulates expression of arsenic
resistance gene in arsenine- exposed bacteria Escherichia coli. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012, 10, 2, 210-27.
In more useful work from India’s
University of Kalyani, researchers looked into the effects of
homeopathically prepared Arsenic trioxide (Arsenicum album) on arsenic
toxicity in E. coli. The bacteria were grown in a sub- bacteriocidal
concentration of sodium arsenite and exposed to Arsenicum 30C or several
controls via a randomised schedule and were assessed for glucose
uptake, specific activities of hexokinase, lipid peroxidase, superoxide
dismutase and catalase, intra- and extra-cellular sodium arsenite
content, cell growth, cell membrane potential, DNA damage, intracellular
reactive oxygen species, adenosine triphosphate, free glutathione
content and expressions of arsB and ptsG genes. On analysis and in
comparison to the controls used, it was found that the use of Arsenicum
30C was associated with a reduced arsenic toxicity in E. coli by
inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species and increasing the
tolerance to arsenite.
28. Coelho Moreira CO, et al.
Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by activated Cebus apella
macrophages treated with a complex homeopathic immune response modifiers. Homeopathy. 2012, 101, 1, 74-9.
In more work done to validate the
effects of the homeopathic combination, Canova, researchers at Brazil’s
Universidade Federal do Pará investigated the in vitro effects of this
product on macrophages and the subsequent effects of these upon
lymphocytes. Macrophages from tufted capuchin monkeys in culture were
exposed to Canova. These macrophages were then co-cultured with
peripheral blood lymphocytes. The analysis of Canova effects in the
cultured lymphocytes was performed according to the cell cycle phase
using flow cytometry and further assessed by enzyme- linked
immunosorbent assay for Interferon gamma and Interleukin-5 cytokines. On
examination of the results it was shown that the use of Canova was
associated with an increase in the number of proliferation lymphocytes
and in the levels of interferon gamma and interleukin-5 cytokines.
29. Guimarães FS, et al. Stimulation of lymphocyte anti-melanoma activity by co-cultured macrophages activated by complex homeopathic medication. BMC Cancer. 2009, Aug 22, 9, 293.
This study, carried out by a team from
Brazil’s Universidade Federal do Paraná, sought to determine the
effects of a complex of homeopathically prepared ingredients on the
in-vitro response to melanoma cells. To do this, mouse lymph node
lymphocytes were co-cultured with macrophages in the presence or absence
of the homeopathic complex, and B16F10 melanoma cells; a particularly
aggressive melanoma cell line. When compared to controls, it was found
that the lymphocyte and macrophage cultures exposed to the homeopathic
complex had greater anti-melanoma activity, reducing melanoma cell
density and increasing the numbers of lysed tumor cells.
30. Frenkel M, et al. Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology. 2010, 36: 2, 395-403.
This University of Texas study was
done to determine the in- vitro cytotoxic effects of homeopathically
potentised Carcinosin 30C, Conium 3C, Phytolacca 200C, Thuja 30C, and
succussed and unsuccussed negative solvent controls on MCF-7 and
MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines in tissue culture and a
normal human cell line in tissue culture. On analysis, it was shown the
use of homeopathically prepared Carcinosin and Phytolacca were associated
with a reduction in the viability of the adenocarcinomatous cells, an
increase in the rate of cell death, a preferential loss of telomeric DNA
and early apoptosis induction from and of these cells.
32. Guimaraes F de SF, et al. In vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of a Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8) treatment in a murine melanoma model. BMC Cancer 2010, 10:113 doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-113.
This Brazilian study adds to previous
work done to determine the anticancer effects of a combination product
containing 10 homeopathically potentised substances, of which Calc carb
5C is the primary ingredient. B16F10 melanoma cells (a particularly
aggressive cell line) in tissue culture were co-cultured with
macrophages and lymphocytes. These were exposed to the homeopathic
combination product and the results compared with an uninocculated
control. On analysis it was shown that the homeopathic combination
product was associated with an increase in the capacity of the
lymphocytes in the tissue culture to destroy growing cancer cells, as
well as an increase in the proportion of CD25+ lymphocytes and an
increase in lymphocyte viability.
35. Gupta G, Srivastava AK. In-vitro activity of Thuja occidentalis Linn. against human pathogenic aspergilla. The Homoeopathic Heritage, 2002, 27, 1, 5-12.
40. Hostanska K, et al. Effect of two homeopathic remedies at different degrees of dilutions on the wound closure of 3T3 fibroblasts in in vitro scratch assay. Int J High Dilution Res, 2012; 11, 40, 164-165. Proceedings of the XXVI GIRI Symposium; 2012, Sep 20-22; Florence (Italy).
This Indian research investigated
whether or not homeopathically prepared Thuja has an in-vitro fungicidal
effect on pathogenic Aspergillus niger and flavus. Pathogenic strains
of these organisms were grown by standard laboratory means and were
exposed to 30C, 200C, 1M, 10M and 50M homeopathically prepared potencies
of Thuja occidentalis as well as two negative controls I(water and
ethanol) and a positive control (Ketaconazole). After incubation the
cultures where measured to determine the extent of growth inhibition.
All of the Thuja potencies showed some effect against both species of
aspergillus, but when compared to the negative controls, the 30c
and 200C potencies showed the greatest effect. In addition, the 30C
potency proved to have a 93% equivalence to Ketoconazole and the 200C
exhibited an 89% equivalence.
Swiss scientists performed this trial
to determine the extent to which two homeopathic combination products
(Similasan Arnica plus and SIM WuS) could influence the activity of
cultured fibroblasts, and thereby demonstrate a possible role in wound
healing. In doing this, cell proliferation, cell migration and the wound
closure promoting effect of the homeopathic preparations and negative
controls were investigated on mouse fibroblasts. Cell viability
was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth was assessed using BrdU
uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by
CytoSelect Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined wound area.
All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments.
On analysis of the results, compared to the control, it was found that
cell viability and proliferation were unaffected by either of the
homeopathic combinations. Similisan did exert a stimulating effect on
fibroblast migration (32% vs 15% for the control). Similisan also
promoted in-vitro wound closure by 60% vs 22% for the control.
44. Rajan A, Bagai U. Antimalarial potential of homeopathic medicines against schizont maturation of Plasmodium berghei in short-term in vitro culture. Int J High Dilution Res, 2012, 11, 41, 224-236.
Scientists from the Department of
Zoology in the Panjab University at Chandigarh in India performed this
in-vitro experiment to discover what effect, if any, various dilutions
of homeopathically prepared materials would have on the viability of
Plasmodium berghei, a parasite commonly implicated in malaria, when
compared to the action of chloroquine. Using the in-vitro schizont
maturation inhibition assay, P. berghei was cultured, and at the
intra-erythrocyte phase of its life cycle, exposed to mother tincture,
6C, 30C or 200C homeopathic preparations of China officinalis,
Chelidonium majus or Arsenicum album, or material doses of
chloroquine. Significant reduction of the growth of intra- erythrocyte
stages of P. berghei was observed with the decreasing dilutions of
mother tincture and the various potencies of China, Chelidonium and
Arsenicum, exhibiting a dose-dependent effect. Maximum schizont
maturation inhibition (80%) was observed with China mother tincture,
China 30C and Chelidonium 30C, with chloroquine providing an inhibition
of 95%. Arsenicum 30C provided an inhibition of 75%.
46. Naoual B, Stéphane C, Terzan L. Assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of homeopathic Arnica Montana. Int J High Dilution Res, 2013; 12(44):121-122. Proceedings of the XXVII GIRI Symposium; 2013, Sep 03-04; Bern (Switzerland) 121.
This study was done in two parts;
in-vitro and in- vivo. The aim of the in-vitro trial was to measure the
effect of Arnica montana 5C on the expression of intracellular cell
adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
(HUVECs). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important
role in the inflammatory process and immune response. These cells were
cultured and exposed to either Arnica or a placebo and assayed for
molecular expression, after which it was shown that Arnica significantly
attenuated ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells compared to placebo,
thereby displaying a significant endothelial anti-inflammatory effect.
The in-vivo part looked at the effect of different homeopathic potencies
of Arnica montana versus placebo, in the regeneration of skeletal
muscle and inflammatory parameters in rats after injury. The results for
this part of the study weren’t quite as successful as the in-vitro arm
but did show an increase in the ratio of M2 to M1 macrophages,
indicating a reduction in inflammation.
47. da Silva RMRJ, et al. Analysis of in vitro activity of high dilutions of Euphorbia tirucalli L. in human melanoma cells. Int J High Dilution Res, 2011, 10, 36, 183-193 Proceedings of the XXV GIRI Symposium and VIII CBFH; 2011, Sep 04-07; Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) 183.
Brazilian researchers set out to
determine what effects, if any, homeopathically prepared potencies of
latex and tincture of Euphorbia tirucalli have on the proliferation of
cultured human melanoma cells. The cultured cells were exposed to 5C,
15C and 30C homeopathic potencies of the latex and mother tincture as
well as an ethanol and water control, and monitored via MTT assay for 24
to 72 hours. Compared to the control, all of the test solutions
appeared to exert a proliferation inhibition, with the Euphorbia
tirucalli 30C prepared from mother tincture exhibiting the strongest
49. Arora S, et al. Anti-proliferative effects of homeopathic medicines on human kidney, colon and breast cancer cells. Homeopathy, 2013, 102, 4, 274-82.
This study set out to investigate the
potential cytotoxicity of homeopathic mother tinctures and 30C, 200C, 1M
and 10M homeopathic potencies of Sarsaparilla, Ruta graveolens and
Phytolacca decandra, against cell lines deriving from tumors of
particular organs. Sarsaparilla was tested against ACHN cells from human
renal adenocarcinoma as well as non-malignant Madin-Darby canine kidney
(MDCK) cells. Ruta was tested against COLO-205 cells from human
colorectal carcinoma, and Phytolacca was tested against MCF-7 cells from
human breast carcinoma. Cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-(4,
5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method,
anti-proliferative activity by trypan blue exclusion assay, apoptosis
determined by dual staining the cells with ethidium bromide (EB) and
acridine orange (AO) dyes. On analysis it was found that all of the
remedies tested (particularly the mother tinctures), produced
cytotoxicity and a decrease in cell proliferation. Signs of apoptosis
were evident including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA
fragmentation. The MDCK cells were unaffected by any of the Sarsaparilla
54. Olioso D, et al. Arnica Montana Effects on Gene Expression in a Human Macrophage Cell Line. Evaluation by Quantitative Real-Time PCR. Homeopathy, 2016, 105, 131-147.
This work from Italy examined the
mechanism of action of various potencies of homeopathically prepared
Arnica (2C to 15C) on wound healing. Quantitative Reverse Transcription
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis was used to study the changes
in the expression of a customised panel of key genes, mainly cytokines,
receptors and transcription factors. The results showed that for
macrophages differentiated towards the wound healing phenotype, Arnica
affected the expression of several genes, in particular, CXC chemokine
ligand 1 (CXCL1), coding for a chief chemokine, and that this exhibited
the most consistent increase of expression, while CXC chemokine ligand 2
(CXCL2), Interleukin8 (IL8) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) were
slightly up-regulated, suggesting a positive influence of Arnica on
neutrophil recruitment and on angiogenesis. MMP1, coding for a
metalloproteinase capable of cleaving extracellular matrix substrates,
55. Pastelin LD, Pichardo CO, Vel-azquez GA. Evaluation
of Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Several Homeopathic Dilutions of
Echinacea Angustifolia on Human Breast, Cervical and Prostate Cancer
Cells and Genotoxic Study of E. angustifolia MT. Homeopathy, 2016, 105, 8.
This Mexican study looked at the
in-vitro anti-cancer effects of various homeopathically prepared
potencies of Echinacea (mother tincture, 6C, 30C, 200C, and 1M) on
different human cancer cell lines- MDA-MB- 231 (Breast cancer), HeLa
(Cervical cancer) and PC-3 (Prostate cancer). Cytotoxicity was measured
using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-iphenyltetrazolium bromide
(MTT) method. Apoptosis was determined by Annexin-V with flow cytometry.
Cytotoxicity was measured on peripheral blood mononucleated cells
(PBMC). Genotoxicity was evaluated by Ames test (in vitro) and
Micronucleus assay (in vivo).The use of the Echinacea was associated
with a viability reduction of between approximately 70 and 89% in the
MDA-MB-231 cells, and a viability reduction of between approximately 40
and 96% for HeLa cells, when compared to controls. No viability
reduction was seen in the PC-3 cells.
58. Mondal J, Samadder A, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Psorinum 6X Triggers Apoptosis Signals in Human Lung Cancer Cells. J Integr Med, 2016, Mar, 14, 2, 143-153.
This controlled study was conducted to
examine the in-vitro effects of the homeopathic medicine, Psorinum 6X,
on cancer cells. Cancer cell lines, including A549, HepG2 and MCF-7,
were exposed to homeopathically prepared Psorinum 6X or a control, and
the outcomes assessed using a
3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The
cell line that exhibited the greatest level of inhibition was selected
and used in further assays to examine cell cycle arrest, cell death
(apoptosis), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and change in
mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), with assessment carried out by
flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Expression of several signal
proteins related to apoptosis and cell survival were quantified with
Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Further, circular dichroism
(CD) spectroscopy was used to determine possible drug-DNA interactions,
as well as the induction of conformational changes. The results showed
that Psorinum 6X triggered apoptosis in A549 cells via both
up-regulation and down-regulation of relevant signalling proteins,
including p53, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2.
61. Frenkel M, et al. Cytotoxic Effects of Ultra-Diluted Remedies on Breast Cancer Cells. Int J Oncol, 2010, 36, 2, 395-403.
This was an in-vitro study carried out
by a joint US and Indian team to determine if homeopathically prepared
materials prescribed by a clinic in India have any effect on breast
cancer cell lines. The research team studied 4 medicines- Carcinosin
30C, Phytolacca 200C, Conium 3C and Thuja 30C, against two human breast
adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a cell line derived
from immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). The
medicines exerted preferential cytotoxic effects against the two breast
cancer cell lines, causing cell cycle delay/arrest and apoptosis. These
effects were accompanied by altered expression of the cell cycle
regulatory proteins, including down-regulation of phosphorylated Rb and
up-regulation of the CDK inhibitor p27, which were likely to be
responsible for the cell cycle delay/arrest as well as induction of the
apoptotic cascade that manifested in the activation of caspase 7 and
cleavage of PARP in the treated cells.
Robert Medhurst on austraalialainen naturopaatti, joka on erikoistunut homeopatiaan ja on kirjoittanut kirjan: The
Concordant Clinical Homeopathic Repertory, perustavaa laatua oleva opas kliinisen homeopatian käyttöön. Katso lisää osoitteesta: www.adelaidehillsnaturopath.com.au.